There are two common types of batteries for electric riding scooters, lithium batteries and lead acid batteries, lead acid vs lithium ion, which one is better?
There are two kinds of batteries configured for electric bikes on the market today, one is lead acid battery and the other is lithium battery. The so-called lead acid battery is the tram that uses lead acid battery, while lithium scooter is the tram that uses lithium battery. The batteries that can be used by electric bicycles are valve-regulated lead-acid maintenance-free batteries, colloidal lead-acid batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium-ion batteries. Lithium battery and lead acid battery are the most commonly used electric bike batteries, so what is the difference between lithium battery vs lead acid?
Batteries that generally use materials containing lithium as electrodes, and at this stage, the most negative electrodes are made of graphite. In fact, lithium batteries mainly rely on the movement of lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes to work. During the charging and discharging process, Li+ is embedded and de-embedded back and forth between the two electrodes: when charging the battery, Li+ is de-embedded from the positive electrode and embedded in the negative electrode through the electrolyte, and the negative electrode is in a lithium-rich state; the opposite is true when discharging.
The electrode of lead-acid battery is mainly made of lead and its oxide, and the electrolyte is sulfuric acid solution. In the charged state of lead-acid battery, the main component of positive electrode is lead dioxide, and the main component of negative electrode is lead; in the discharged state, the main component of both positive and negative electrodes is lead sulfate.
The production cost of lithium batteries is high, the production of expensive equipment and labor costs account for about 40% of the production cost, the price is about three times the lead-acid batteries. Its three times the price to bring the cost is not high, rather than give people the feeling of flashy, and lithium batteries can not be recycled, with bad can only be thrown away, or find a place to bury, after a few thousand years, descendants dig out is an antique.
Lithium-ion battery is the most advanced secondary battery (rechargeable battery) in the world, with the advantages of small size, light weight, high energy density, long service life, no memory effect, environmental protection, safety and reliability, etc. It is the ideal power source for high-grade instruments.
When the voltage and capacity are the same, compared with lead-acid batteries, the volume of lithium-ion batteries is reduced to half, the weight is reduced to a quarter, while the life is three times that of lead-acid batteries, compared with NiMH or NiCd batteries, the volume and weight of lithium-ion batteries are about half, while the life is two times that of them.
The lead-acid battery is one of the most widely used batteries. A glass or plastic tank is used, filled with sulfuric acid, and then two lead plates are inserted, one connected to the positive terminal of the charger and one connected to the negative terminal of the charger, and a battery is formed after a dozen hours of charging.
A battery with lithium as the negative electrode. It is a new type of high-energy battery developed after the 60s. They are classified according to the different electrolytes used：
1. high temperature molten salt lithium batteries.
2. organic electrolyte lithium batteries.
3. inorganic non-aqueous electrolyte lithium batteries.
4. solid electrolyte lithium battery.
5. Lithium water battery.
The advantages of lithium batteries are high single cell voltage, high specific energy, long storage life, high and low temperature performance, can be used in -40 ~ 150 ℃. Vigorous development of power batteries and the emergence of new cathode materials, especially the development of lithium iron phosphate materials, the development of lithium power has helped a lot.
Lead-acid batteries generally single battery voltage is 2 volts, mainly divided into liquid-rich and liquid-poor, the general battery capacity is a few amp-hours to more than 10,000 amp-hours, while lithium batteries single battery voltage between 3.7-4.3, single capacity is generally in a few amp-hours to about a hundred, single battery is difficult to compare with lead-acid batteries. Of course the use is not the same. Lithium batteries are not recycled now, because the cost of recycling is very high.
lithium vs lead acid shape, lead-acid batteries are generally square-shaped, while lithium batteries have a soft package, cylindrical, square 3 forms, so you just see a soft package, a bit like the shape of the hospital with infusion bags or cylindrical shape is generally lithium batteries.
Usually, lead-acid battery pack weight in 16-30 kg, larger volume; and lithium battery weight is generally in 2.5-3.0 kg, relatively small volume, so riding light, easy to carry. From the quality point of view, it is difficult to define the good and bad of the two, but consumers can buy good quality batteries produced by regular manufacturers according to their actual needs.
Lithium battery is more durable, slow consumption, charged and discharged more than 500 times, and no memory, the general life of 4-5 years. Lead-acid batteries are generally within 400 times of deep charging and discharging, with memory and a life span of about two years. If the use of maintenance-free lead-acid batteries, it should be noted that their batteries lose less water, and generally do not need to add distilled water in use. In terms of durability, lithium batteries have good resistance to vibration, fully charged batteries are safely fixed, with 4mm amplitude, 16.7Hz frequency vibration for 1 hour, no leakage, no battery expansion and rupture, open circuit voltage is normal; good resistance to overcharge, 25 degrees Celsius, fully charged batteries 0.1CA charge for 48 hours, no leakage, no battery expansion and rupture, open circuit voltage is normal, capacity The maintenance rate is above 95%; good resistance to high current, fully charged battery 2CA discharge for 5 minutes or 10CA discharge for 5 seconds, no conductive part fuse, no appearance deformation.
Lithium battery has become the first choice of some electric motorcycles, electric bicycles and electric power-assisted vehicles, and its development is as hot as ever, in large part because the service life of lithium batteries is longer than that of lead-acid batteries. Under normal circumstances, the service life of lithium batteries can reach as long as five years, while lead-acid batteries will be relatively short, up to about three years, which is still in the case of proper maintenance. Lead-acid batteries are greatly affected by electricity, if the charge is too full will cause harm to the battery; if the power is too much, is the tram often out of power, will make the battery loss serious, all these aspects will affect the service life of lead-acid batteries.
The capacity of lithium batteries is generally 8-10 amps; lead-acid batteries have a capacity of about 20 amps.
The only advantage of lead-acid battery is that it is cheaper than lithium battery in terms of price; while lithium battery has good heat dissipation and range function, and its shell packaging material is excellent, sealed tightly, not only anti-drop but also durable, so the manufacturing cost is far more daring than lead-acid battery, naturally the price of lithium scooter will be much more expensive than the price of lead-acid tram.
Different degree of convenience：
The battery of the lead-acid tram will be fixed in the electric bicycles, connected to the wiring inside the electric bicycles, and the tram as a whole, can not be easily removed; while the lithium battery can be removed at any time, when the battery is dead, you only need to take the battery back to recharge it, without the trouble of tossing the tram back and forth, which is a great convenience for residents living in small areas.
Lithium battery can be said to be a major upgrade in the battery industry, it is not only compact design, easy to carry, but also environmentally friendly, but also become the popular nowadays, and lithium scooter is naturally popular. In comparison, lead-acid batteries continue to go downhill, and it is very polluting, in order to address this phenomenon, so it will increase efforts in its recycling, the recycling price will be higher than lithium batteries.
Range / battery capacity:
the same 48V battery, fully charged, lead-acid / lithium battery electric bicycles range are similar, depending on speed, motor size and other factors. Of course, the battery capacity, lead-acid batteries will be slightly larger than lithium batteries.
First of all, it depends on what each of us needs, and when buying a scooter, ask yourself what kind of scooter you really need. What is the budget? Do you want a lightweight or a luxury electric bicycles? Is the intelligent operation and multi-functionality of the electric bicycles necessary? How long is the commuting distance?
If you consider your commuting distance, limited budget and convenient charging when buying an electric motorcycles, we suggest you to choose lead-acid battery electric scooter. Because of the cheap price and good performance of lead-acid bicycles, they have always been very popular among users.
On the contrary, if the daily walking riding route is far, and the budget is enough, charging is not convenient, here we have to recommend lithium battery electric scooter. Especially for female users, lithium-ion vehicles, whether the convenience of removable batteries, or long-range durability, who use who knows.
In addition, when you buy an electric scooter, you can also be determined according to the usual travel conditions. Such as cross-city commuting, commuting a long distance, or need to take people or climbing, you can choose a larger battery voltage, better stability of the model.
At present, the lithium-ion battery technology is more mature, the correct use of lithium battery pack, charge and discharge the lithium battery, can ensure the service life of the battery, but also free from safety hazards. In the normal life of the electric scooter battery is generally in about three years, a large reason for the early end of life is the unreasonable charging habits caused. The correct method of battery charging can make your own battery "life extension".
Avoid charging at too high a temperature.
If the lithium iron phosphate battery pack is used in an environment above the specified operating temperature, i.e., above 35°C, the battery power will be constantly reduced, i.e., the battery will not be powered for as long as usual. If in such a temperature, but also to charge the device, then the damage to the battery will be even greater. Even if the battery is stored in a hotter environment, it will inevitably cause corresponding damage to the quality of the battery. Therefore, try to maintain at moderate operating temperature is a good way to extend the life of lithium batteries.
Avoid charging at too low temperature
If the lithium battery is used in a low temperature environment, i.e. below 4°C, you will also find that the usage time of the lithium battery pack is reduced, and the original lithium battery of some cell phones cannot even be charged in a low temperature environment. But don't worry too much, this is only a temporary condition, unlike the use in high temperature environment, once the temperature rises, the molecules in the battery are heated up and it immediately returns to the previous power level.
1、The lead-acid battery has no time and charging amount regulation for initial charging, and it can be charged and discharged at any time, which will not lead to pole plate memory.
2、It should be noted that it should never be over-discharged and over-charged, over-charging is the process of chemistry into the workshop, which will lead to the thinning of the metal layer of the plate grid and easy to break the grid, over-discharging will lead to the sulfuration of the pole plate, the failure of the active sponge tissue and shorten the life of the pole plate, the lead-acid battery should pay attention to the specific gravity of the electrolyte and the height of the liquid level, and cannot be short of liquid.
3, general electric scooter lead-acid battery charging charger, are using three charging mode, in the case of 100% used up electricity, charging time will be in 8 ~ 10 hours, do not exceed 12 hours, so the battery life will have an impact, it is best not to use up the electricity every time you use, it is recommended that the power in about 70% to charge the electric scooter, charging time is generally in 6 ~ 8 hours The charging time is usually about 6~8 hours.
4, the temperature is too high or too humid environment is not suitable for electric scooter charging, easy to cause danger. The environment for charging lead-acid batteries of electric vehicles should be ventilated as much as possible, and a flat place should be chosen for continuous charging.
5、The charging time of lead-acid battery should be properly controlled at about 8-10 hours, not more than 8 hours in summer and not more than 10 hours in winter. After the charger indicator turns green and then float charging for about 1-2 hours, you can stop the charging work.
The most important issue is the existence of lithium battery fire and explosion safety hazards, especially in the case of consumers unknowingly deceived by the unscrupulous businessmen led to the purchase of poor quality lithium batteries, in electric vehicles such as sealing conditions are not too good, easy to moisture leading to poor contact and other reasons that may cause the existence of safety hazards.
However, the technical performance of lithium batteries is also improving, is also using high-security materials, the existence of safety hazards may only be unnecessary worry, perhaps not long is the world of lithium batteries may also be said.
Whether lithium batteries or lead-acid batteries, in the design of the internal pressure will be set for the abnormal increase in the case of safety valve, even if the battery internal short circuit and other abnormalities, the internal pressure will be released in a timely manner, will not cause a major risk. The vast majority of the so-called "explosion" from the vehicle circuit or charger capacitance.
Compared with lithium batteries, lead-acid battery safety is still very high, the phenomenon of explosion is very small, but the current market competition is fierce, some bad businessmen in order to reduce the cost of the battery using poor quality plates, it is easy to cause a short circuit, or even cause the battery fire and explosion, in addition, lead-acid battery improper use will also appear the risk of fire and explosion.
From the point of view of battery safety design, qualified lithium batteries and lead-acid batteries are able to fully ensure the safety of users, and there is no significant difference in safety. However, due to the large number of low-end small electric vehicles and scooters on the market, and most of them use poor quality lithium batteries, which are relatively more prone to accidents, which also leaves consumers with the illusion that lithium batteries are not safe.
If the battery structure is damaged due to accidental impact, lead-acid batteries seem to be safer than lithium battery packs. However, in an accident of this level, the battery material has long been exposed to the open environment, and the explosion can not be talked about.
In terms of battery structure, the current lithium battery pack is basically 18650 cells for packaging, while the lead-acid battery is basically a maintenance-free lead-acid battery with good sealing performance, and if the internal pressure is too high and the safety valve is abnormal, the risk factor of both is basically equivalent.
On the contrary, lead-acid batteries seem to be lacking in safety protection except for the safety valve, BMS protection is almost non-existent, and many poor-quality chargers cannot even do full power off, so the safety protection is far from lithium batteries. From the point of view of the safety redundancy design of the battery, qualified lithium batteries and lead-acid batteries can fully ensure the safety of users, and there is no obvious difference in safety.
One is physical: for example, the internal pressure of the battery is too high, causing the battery case to explode. Another situation is chemical, that is, the electrolysis of hydrogen gas from the inside of the ignition caused by an open flame. Generally seen because the battery vent is not smooth, the pressure is too high, the battery itself first burst open, burst will cause the battery vibration, so the pole wiring will not wobble and generate sparks, thus igniting the hydrogen gas to form an explosion.
Internal short circuit: internal short circuit image, the core of the large electric discharge by electricity, the onset of generous heat, burn the barrier, and make a larger short circuit image, the cloud core will be high temperature, so that the electrolyte disintegration into gas, resulting in excessive internal pressure, when the shell of the core can not bear this pressure, the lithium battery will explode.
The reason why the lithium-ion battery will have the tension of explosion is because of the internal reflection of the battery called "thermal runaway" process. The "thermal runaway" is a positive energy reaction cycle: the increased temperature will cause the preparation to become hot, the preparation becomes hot to raise the temperature, which in turn makes the preparation even hotter.
The water content is too high: the water may reflect with the electrolyte in the core to produce gas, and when charging, it may reflect with the lithium born to produce lithium oxide, so that the capacity of the core is lost, and the core is easily overcharged and born with gas, and the disintegration voltage of the water is low, and when charging, it is easy to disintegrate and born with gas, and when this series of born gas fusion will make the internal pressure of the core increase, and when the shell of the core cannot bear it, the core will explosion.
Whether lithium batteries or lead-acid batteries, the design will be set for the abnormal increase in internal pressure safety valve, even if the battery internal short circuit and other abnormal conditions, the internal pressure will be released in a timely manner, will not cause a big risk. Lithium batteries in the summer high temperature environment and indoor closed environment charging, pay attention to prevent the explosion and combustion, pay attention to prevent the danger.
The above is the introduction of motorcycle battery lithium vs lead acid, more electric bicycles issues please look forward to.